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The epidemic of pellagra in the first half of this century at its peak produced at least 250,000 cases and caused 7,000 deaths a year for several decades in 15 southern states. It also filled hospital wards in other states, which had a similar incidence but refused to report their cases. Political influences interfered, not only with surveillance of the disease, but also in its study, recognition of its cause, and the institution of preventive measures when they became known.
PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that different environments had different culturable bacterial aerosol compositions as revealed by distinct gel band patterns. For most Ray Ban Stockists New Zealand
environments tested, larger (>3 μm) culturable bacterial aerosols with a skewed size distribution were shown to prevail, accounting for more than 60 %, while for culturable fungal aerosols with a normal size distribution, those 2.1-4.7 μm dominated, accounting for 20-40 %. Alternaria, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Aspergillus were found abundant in most environments studied here.
BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up of trial participants represents a threat to research validity. To date, interventions designed to increase participants' awareness of benefits to society of completing follow-up, and the impact of a telephone call from a senior female clinician and researcher requesting follow-up have not been evaluated robustly.PURPOSE: Trial 1 aimed to evaluate the effect on trial follow-up of written information regarding the benefits of participation to society. Trial 2 aimed to evaluate the effect on trial follow-up of a telephone call from a senior female clinician and researcher.METHODS: Two single-blind randomized controlled trials were nested within a larger trial, Txt2stop.
BACKGROUND: This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a telephone-based intervention to increase physical activity in obese African American women with mobility disabilities by targeting the removal of barriers to participation.METHODS: Severely obese (mean body mass index [BMI] = 49.1 kg.m²) African American women (n = 33) with mobility disabilities completed a 6-month telephone-based physical activity coaching intervention.RESULTS: The major environmental/facility barriers at preintervention were cost of the program (66.7%), lack of transportation (48.5%), not aware of fitness center in the area (45.5%), and lack of accessible facilities (45.5%). The major personal barriers were pain (63.6%), don't know how to exercise (45.5%), health concerns (39.4%), don't know where to exercise (39.4%), and lack of energy (36.4%). Despite only two personal barriers being significantly lower at posttest (don't know where to exercise and don't Ray Ban Nz Stockist
know how to exercise) (p < 0.01), total exercise time increased from < 6 minutes/day to 27 minutes/day at posttest (p < 0.001), and total physical activity time (structured exercise, leisure, indoor and outdoor household activity) increased from 26 minutes/day to 89 minutes/day at posttest (p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Interventions aimed at increasing physical activity participation among obese African American women with mobility disabilities should start with increasing their awareness/knowledge on where and how to exercise.